The coastal belt of Kerala is thickly populated. Developmental activities related to ports, fishing harbours, godowns, business establishments, dwelling constructions etc. are intensely going on in this region. The ecosystem services of the mangroves in the coastal regions are so unique, high and permanent. But they got depleted from about 700 km square in the beginning of twentieth century to about 17 km square, as estimated in the beginning of 1990s. The current district-wise area recorded is still poor, that is, only about 4200 hectares.
Several wet land systems and tiny islands or lagoons adjacent to the coastal line are worth mentioning. Pathiramanal, Wellington, Vypin, Vallarpadom, Valanthakkad, Dharmadam etc. are some of them. Most of these are thickly populated and with agricultural crops, especially coconut gardens. The highly fragile and biologically rich mangrove ecosystem is the natural vegetation here. As mangroves are globally threatened here also they face degradation and wiping out threat for developmental activities. Though these mangroves are depleted, still they harbour wild flora, fauna and several aquatic species. Conservation of the remaining patches of this prehistoric natural vegetation is taken up by the State Government. Sustenance and regeneration of the degraded mangroves is also carried out by individuals and NGOs on a dedicated priority. Most of the lagoons are now becoming favourite holiday destinations. The inland districts like Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Palakkad and Wayanad are devoid of coastal vegetation and mangrove forests.